6. Toolchain

6.1. spicy-build

spicy-build is a shell frontend that compiles Spicy source code into a standalone executable by running spicyc to generate the necessary C++ code, then spawning the system compiler to compile and link that.

spicy-build [options] <input files>

    -d          Build a debug version.
    -o <file>   Destination name for the compiled executable; default is "a.out".
    -t          Do not delete tmp files (useful for inspecting, and use with debugger)
    -v          Verbose output, display command lines executing.
    -S          Do not compile the "spicy-driver" host application into executable.

Input files may be anything that spicyc can compile to C++.

6.2. spicy-config

spicy-config reports information about Spicy’s build & installation options.

Usage: spicy-config [options]

Available options:

    --bindir                Prints the path to the directory where binaries are installed.
    --build                 Prints "debug" or "release", depending on the build configuration.
    --cmake-path            Prints the path to Spicy-provided CMake modules
    --cxx                   Print the path to the C++ compiler used to build Spicy
    --cxxflags              Print flags for C++ compiler when compiling generated code statically
    --cxxflags-hlto         Print flags for C++ compiler when building precompiled HLTO libraries
    --debug                 Output flags for working with debugging versions.
    --distbase              Print path of the Spicy source distribution.
    --dynamic-loading       Adjust --ldflags for host applications that dynamically load precompiled modules
    --have-toolchain        Prints 'yes' if the Spicy toolchain was built, 'no' otherwise.
    --have-zeek             Prints 'yes' if the Spicy was compiled with Zeek support, 'no' otherwise.
    --help                  Print this usage summary
    --include-dirs          Prints the Spicy runtime's C++ include directories
    --ldflags               Print flags for linker when compiling generated code statically
    --ldflags-hlto          Print flags for linker linker when building precompiled HLTO libraries
    --libdirs               Print standard Spicy library directories.
    --prefix                Print path of installation
    --spicy-build           Print the path to the spicy-build script.
    --spicyc                Print the path to the spicyc binary.
    --version               Print the Spicy version as a string.
    --version-number        Print the Spicy version as a numerical value.
    --zeek                  Print the path to the Zeek executable
    --zeek-include-dirs     Print the Spicy runtime's C++ include directories
    --zeek-module-path      Print the path of the directory the Zeek plugin searches for *.hlto modules
    --zeek-plugin-path      Print the path to go into ZEEK_PLUGIN_PATH for enabling the Zeek Spicy plugin
    --zeek-prefix           Print the path to the Zeek installation prefix
    --zeek-version          Print the Zeek version (empty if no Zeek available)
    --zeek-version-number   Print the Zeek version as a numerical value (zero if no Zeek available)

6.3. spicyc

spicyc compiles Spicy code into C++ output, optionally also executing it directly through JIT.

Usage: spicyc [options] <inputs>

Options controlling code generation:

  -c | --output-c++               Print out all generated C++ code (including linker glue by default).
  -d | --debug                    Include debug instrumentation into generated code.
  -e | --output-all-dependencies  Output list of dependencies for all compiled modules.
  -j | --jit-code                 Fully compile all code, and then execute it unless --output-to gives a file to store it
  -l | --output-linker            Print out only generated HILTI linker glue code.
  -o | --output-to <path>         Path for saving output.
  -p | --output-hilti             Just output parsed HILTI code again.
  -v | --version                  Print version information.
  -A | --abort-on-exceptions      When executing compiled code, abort() instead of throwing HILTI exceptions.
  -B | --show-backtraces          Include backtraces when reporting unhandled exceptions.
  -C | --dump-code                Dump all generated code to disk for debugging.
  -D | --compiler-debug <streams> Activate compile-time debugging output for given debug streams (comma-separated; 'help' for list).
  -E | --output-code-dependencies Output list of dependencies for all compiled modules that require separate compilation of their own.
  -L | --library-path <path>      Add path to list of directories to search when importing modules.
  -O | --optimize                 Build optimized release version of generated code.
  -P | --output-prototypes        Output C++ header with prototypes for public functionality.
  -R | --report-times             Report a break-down of compiler's execution time.
  -S | --skip-dependencies        Do not automatically compile dependencies during JIT.
  -T | --keep-tmps                Do not delete any temporary files created.
  -V | --skip-validation          Don't validate ASTs (for debugging only).
  -X | --debug-addl <addl>        Implies -d and adds selected additional instrumentation (comma-separated; see 'help' for list).

  -Q | --include-offsets          Include stream offsets of parsed data in output.


Inputs can be .hlt, .spicy, .cc/.cxx, *.hlto.

6.4. spicy-driver

spicy-driver is a standalone Spicy host application that compiles and executes Spicy parsers on the fly, and then feeds them data for parsing from standard input.

Usage: cat <data> | spicy-driver [options] <inputs> ...

Options:

  -d | --debug                    Include debug instrumentation into generated code.
  -i | --increment <i>            Feed data incrementally in chunks of size n.
  -f | --file <path>              Read input from <path> instead of stdin.
  -l | --list-parsers             List available parsers and exit.
  -p | --parser <name>            Use parser <name> to process input. Only neeeded if more than one parser is available.
  -v | --version                  Print version information.
  -A | --abort-on-exceptions      When executing compiled code, abort() instead of throwing HILTI exceptions.
  -B | --show-backtraces          Include backtraces when reporting unhandled exceptions.
  -D | --compiler-debug <streams> Activate compile-time debugging output for given debug streams (comma-separated; 'help' for list).
  -F | --batch-file <path>        Read Spicy batch input from <path>; see docs for description of format.
  -L | --library-path <path>      Add path to list of directories to search when importing modules.
  -O | --optimize                 Build optimized release version of generated code.
  -R | --report-times             Report a break-down of compiler's execution time.
  -S | --skip-dependencies        Do not automatically compile dependencies during JIT.
  -U | --report-resource-usage    Print summary of runtime resource usage.
  -X | --debug-addl <addl>        Implies -d and adds selected additional instrumentation (comma-separated; see 'help' for list).

Environment variables:

  SPICY_PATH                      Colon-separated list of directories to search for modules. In contrast to --library-paths using this flag overwrites builtin paths.

Inputs can be .hlt, .spicy, .cc/.cxx, *.o, *.hlto.

6.4.1. Specifying the parser to use

If there’s only single public unit in the Spicy source code, spicy-driver will automatically use that for parsing its input. If there’s more than one public unit, you need to tell spicy-driver which one to use through its --parser (or -p) option. To see the parsers that are available, use --list-parsers (or -l).

In addition to the names shown by --list-parsers, you can also specify a parser through a port or MIME type if the corresponding unit defines them through properties. For example, if a unit defines %port = 80/tcp, you can use spicy-driver -p 80/tcp to select it. To specify a direction, add either %orig or %resp (e.g., -p 80/tcp%resp); then only units with a port tagged with an &originator or &responder attribute, respectively, will be considered. If a unit defines %mime-type = application/test, you can select it through spicy-driver -p application/test. (Note that there must be exactly one unit with a matching property for this all to work, otherwise you’ll get an error message.)

6.4.2. Batch input

spicy-driver provides a batch input mode for processing multiple interleaved input flows in parallel, mimicking how host applications like Zeek would be employing Spicy parsers for processing many sessions concurrently. The batch input must be prepared in a specific format (see below) that provides embedded meta information about the contained flows of input. The easiest way to generate such a batch is a Zeek script coming with Spicy. If you run Zeek with this script on a PCAP trace, it will record the contained TCP and UDP sessions into a Spicy batch file:

# zeek -b -r http/methods.trace record-spicy-batch.zeek
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46562/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46563/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46564/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46565/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46566/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46567/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
[...]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46608/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46609/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
tracking [orig_h=128.2.6.136, orig_p=46610/tcp, resp_h=173.194.75.103, resp_p=80/tcp]
recorded 49 sessions total
output in batch.dat

You will now have a file batch.dat that you can use with spicy-driver -F batch.data ....

The batch created by the Zeek script will select parsers for the contained sessions through well-known ports. That means your units need to have a %port property matching the responder port of the sessions you want them to parse. So for the HTTP trace above, our Spicy source code would need to provide a public unit with property %port = 80/tcp;.

In case you want to create batches yourself, we document the batch format in the following. A batch needs to start with a line !spicy-batch v2<NL>, followed by lines with commands of the form @<tag> <arguments><NL>.

There are two types of input that the batch format can represent: (1) individual, uni-directional flows; and (2) bi-directional connections consisting in turn of one flow per side. The type is determined through an initial command: @begin-flow starts a flow flow, and @begin-conn starts a connection. Either form introduces a unique, free-form ID that subsequent commands will then refer to. The following commands are supported:

@begin-flow FID TYPE PARSER<NL>
Initializes a new input flow for parsing, associating the unique ID FID with it. TYPE must be either stream for stream-based parsing (think: TCP), or block for parsing each data block independent of others (think: UDP). PARSER is the name of the Spicy parser to use for parsing this input flow, given in the same form as with spicy-driver’s --parser option (i.e., either as a unit name, a %port, or a %mime-type).
@begin-conn CID TYPE ORIG_FID ORIG_PARSER RESP_FID RESP_PARSER<NL>
Initializes a new input connection for parsing, associating the unique connection ID CID with it. TYPE must be either stream for stream-based parsing (think: TCP), or block for parsing each data block independent of others (think: UDP). ORIG_FID is separate unique ID for the originator-side flow, and ORIG_PARSER is the name of the Spicy parser to use for parsing that flow. RESP_FID and RESP_PARSER work accordingly for the responder-side flow. The parsers can be given in the same form as with spicy-driver’s --parser option (i.e., either as a unit name, a %port, or a %mime-type).
@data FID SIZE<NL>
A block of data for the input flow FID. This command must be followed directly by binary data of length SIZE, plus a final newline character. The data represents the next chunk of input for the corresponding flow. @data can be used only inside corresponding @begin-* and @end-* commands bracketing the flow ID.
@end-flow FID<NL>
Finalizes parsing of the input flow associated with FID, releasing all state. This must come only after a corresponding @begin-flow command, and every @begin-flow must eventually be followed by an @end-flow.
@end-conn CID<NL>
Finalizes parsing the input connection associated with CID, releasing all state (including for its two flows). This must come only after a corresponding @begin-conn command, and every @begin-conn must eventually be followed by an @end-end.

6.5. spicy-dump

spicy-dump is a standalone Spicy host application that compiles and executes Spicy parsers on the fly, feeds them data for proessing, and then at the end prints out the parsed information in either a readable, custom ASCII format, or as JSON (--json or -J). By default, spicy-dump disables showing the output of Spicy print statements, --enable-print or -P reenables that.

Usage: cat <data> | spicy-dump [options] <inputs> ...

Options:

  -d | --debug                    Include debug instrumentation into generated code.
  -f | --file <path>              Read input from <path> instead of stdin.
  -l | --list-parsers             List available parsers and exit.
  -p | --parser <name>            Use parser <name> to process input. Only neeeded if more than one parser is available.
  -v | --version                  Print version information.
  -A | --abort-on-exceptions      When executing compiled code, abort() instead of throwing HILTI exceptions.
  -B | --show-backtraces          Include backtraces when reporting unhandled exceptions.
  -D | --compiler-debug <streams> Activate compile-time debugging output for given debug streams (comma-separated; 'help' for list).
  -L | --library-path <path>      Add path to list of directories to search when importing modules.
  -J | --json                     Print JSON output.
  -O | --optimize                 Build optimized release version of generated code.
  -P | --enable-print             Show output of Spicy 'print' statements (default: off).
  -Q | --include-offsets          Include stream offsets of parsed data in output.
  -R | --report-times             Report a break-down of compiler's execution time.
  -S | --skip-dependencies        Do not automatically compile dependencies during JIT.
  -X | --debug-addl <addl>        Implies -d and adds selected additional instrumentation (comma-separated; see 'help' for list).

Environment variables:

  SPICY_PATH                      Colon-separated list of directories to search for modules. In contrast to --library-paths using this flag overwrites builtin paths.

Inputs can be .hlt, .spicy, *.spicy *.hlt *.hlto.