The Zeek scripting language supports the following built-in types:





count, int, double

Numeric types

time, interval

Time types




Regular expression

port, addr, subnet

Network types


Enumeration (user-defined type)

table, set, vector, record

Container types

function, event, hook

Executable types


File type (only for writing)


Opaque type (for some built-in functions)


Any type (for functions or containers)

Here is a more detailed description of each type:


Reflects a value with one of two meanings: true or false. The two bool constants are T and F.

The bool type supports the following operators: equality/inequality (==, !=), logical and/or (&&, ||), logical negation (!), and absolute value (where |T| is 1, and |F| is 0, and in both cases the result type is count).


A numeric type representing a 64-bit signed integer. An int constant is a string of digits preceded by a + or - sign, e.g. -42 or +5 (the + sign is optional but see note about type inferencing below). An int constant can also be written in hexadecimal notation (in which case 0x must be between the sign and the hex digits), e.g. -0xFF or +0xabc123.

The int type supports the following operators: arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, %), comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=), assignment operators (=, +=, -=), pre-increment (++), pre-decrement (--), unary plus and minus (+, -), and absolute value (e.g., |-3| is 3, but the result type is count).

When using type inferencing, use care so that the intended type is inferred, e.g. local size_difference = 0 will infer count, while local size_difference = +0 will infer int.

For signed-integer arithmetic involving int types that cause overflows (results that exceed the numeric limits of representable values in either direction), Zeek’s behavior is generally undefined and one should not rely on any observed behavior being consistent across compilers, platforms, time, etc. The reason for this is that the C++ standard also deems this as undefined behavior and Zeek does not currently attempt to detect such overflows within its underlying C++ implementation (some limited cases may try to statically determine at parse-time that an overflow will definitely occur and reject them an error, but don’t rely on that).


A numeric type representing a 64-bit unsigned integer. A count constant is a string of digits, e.g. 1234 or 0. A count can also be written in hexadecimal notation (in which case 0x must precede the hex digits), e.g. 0xff or 0xABC123.

The count type supports the same operators as the int type, but a unary plus or minus applied to a count results in an int.

In addition, count types support bitwise operations. You can use &, |, and ^ for bitwise and, or, and xor. You can also use ~ for bitwise (one’s) complement.

For unsigned arithmetic involving count types that cause overflows (results that exceed the numeric limits of representable value in either direction), Zeek’s behavior is to wrap the result modulo 2^64 back into the range of representable values (the same behavior as defined by C++).


Integer literals in Zeek that are not preceded by a unary + or - are treated as the unsigned count type. This can cause unintentional surprises is some situations, like for an absolute-value operation of |5 - 9| that results in an unsigned-integer overflow to the large number of 18446744073709551612 where |+5 - +9| results in signed-integer arithmetic and (likely) more expected result of 4.


A numeric type representing a double-precision floating-point number. Floating-point constants are written as a string of digits with an optional decimal point, optional scale-factor in scientific notation, and optional + or - sign. Examples are -1234, -1234e0, 3.14159, and .003E-23.

The double type supports the following operators: arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /), comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=), assignment operators (=, +=, -=), unary plus and minus (+, -), and absolute value (e.g., |-3.14| is 3.14).

When using type inferencing use care so that the intended type is inferred, e.g. local size_difference = 5 will infer count, while local size_difference = 5.0 will infer double.


A temporal type representing an absolute time. There is currently no way to specify a time constant, but one can use the double_to_time, current_time, or network_time built-in functions to assign a value to a time-typed variable.

Time values support the comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=). A time value can be subtracted from another time value to produce an interval value. An interval value can be added to, or subtracted from, a time value to produce a time value. The absolute value of a time value is a double with the same numeric value.


A temporal type representing a relative time. An interval constant can be written as a numeric constant followed by a time unit where the time unit is one of usec, msec, sec, min, hr, or day which respectively represent microseconds, milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, and days. Whitespace between the numeric constant and time unit is optional. Appending the letter s to the time unit in order to pluralize it is also optional (to no semantic effect). Examples of interval constants are 3.5 min and 3.5mins. An interval can also be negated, for example -12 hr represents “twelve hours in the past”.

Intervals support addition and subtraction, the comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=), the assignment operators (=, +=, -=), and unary plus and minus (+, -).

Intervals also support division (in which case the result is a double value). An interval can be multiplied or divided by an arithmetic type (count, int, or double) to produce an interval value. The absolute value of an interval is a double value equal to the number of seconds in the interval (e.g., |-1 min| is 60.0).


A type used to hold bytes which represent text and also can hold arbitrary binary data.

String constants are created by enclosing text within a pair of double quotes ("). A string constant cannot span multiple lines in a Zeek script. The backslash character (\) introduces escape sequences. Zeek recognizes the following escape sequences: \\, \n, \t, \v, \b, \r, \f, \a, \ooo (where each ‘o’ is an octal digit), \xhh (where each ‘h’ is a hexadecimal digit). If Zeek does not recognize an escape sequence, Zeek will ignore the backslash (\\g becomes g).

Strings support concatenation (+), and assignment (=, +=). Strings also support the comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=). The number of characters in a string can be found by enclosing the string within pipe characters (e.g., |"abc"| is 3). Substring searching can be performed using the in or !in operators (e.g., "bar" in "foobar" yields true).

The subscript operator can extract a substring of a string. To do this, specify the starting index to extract (if the starting index is omitted, then zero is assumed), followed by a colon and index one past the last character to extract (if the last index is omitted, then the extracted substring will go to the end of the original string). However, if both the colon and last index are omitted, then a string of length one is extracted. String indexing is zero-based, but an index of -1 refers to the last character in the string, and -2 refers to the second-to-last character, etc. Here are a few examples:

local orig = "0123456789";
local second_char = orig[1];         # "1"
local last_char = orig[-1];          # "9"
local first_two_chars = orig[:2];    # "01"
local last_two_chars = orig[8:];     # "89"
local no_first_and_last = orig[1:9]; # "12345678"
local no_first = orig[1:];           # "123456789"
local no_last = orig[:-1];           # "012345678"
local copy_orig = orig[:];           # "0123456789"

Note that the subscript operator cannot be used to modify a string (i.e., it cannot be on the left side of an assignment operator).


A type representing regular-expression patterns that can be used for fast text-searching operations. Pattern constants are created by enclosing text within forward slashes (/) and use the same syntax as the patterns supported by the flex lexical analyzer. The speed of regular expression matching does not depend on the complexity or size of the patterns. Patterns support two types of matching, exact and embedded.

In exact matching the == equality relational operator is used with one pattern operand and one string operand (order of operands does not matter) to check whether the full string exactly matches the pattern. In exact matching, the ^ beginning-of-line and $ end-of-line anchors are redundant since the pattern is implicitly anchored to the beginning and end of the line to facilitate an exact match. For example:

/foo|bar/ == "foo"

yields true, while:

/foo|bar/ == "foobar"

yields false. The != operator would yield the negation of ==.

In embedded matching the in operator is used with one pattern operand (which must be on the left-hand side) and one string operand, but tests whether the pattern appears anywhere within the given string. For example:

/foo|bar/ in "foobar"

yields true, while:

/^oob/ in "foobar"

is false since "oob" does not appear at the start of "foobar". The !in operator would yield the negation of in.

You can create a disjunction (either-or) of two patterns using the | operator. For example:

/foo/ | /bar/ in "foobar"

yields true, like in the similar example above. You can also create the conjunction (concatenation) of patterns using the & operator. For example:

/foo/ & /bar/ in "foobar"

will yield true because the pattern /(foo)(bar)/ appears in the string "foobar".

When specifying a pattern, you can add a final i specifier to mark it as case-insensitive. For example, /foo|bar/i will match "foo", "Foo", "BaR", etc.

You can also introduce a case-insensitive sub-pattern by enclosing it in (?i:<pattern>). So, for example, /foo|(?i:bar)/ will match "foo" and "BaR", but not "Foo".

For both ways of specifying case-insensitivity, characters enclosed in double quotes maintain their case-sensitivity. So for example /"foo"/i will not match "Foo", but it will match "foo".


A type representing transport-level port numbers (besides TCP and UDP ports, there is a concept of an ICMP port where the source port is the ICMP message type and the destination port the ICMP message code). A port constant is written as an unsigned integer followed by one of /tcp, /udp, /icmp, or /unknown.

Ports support the comparison operators (==, !=, <, <=, >, >=). When comparing order across transport-level protocols, unknown < tcp < udp < icmp, for example 65535/tcp is smaller than 0/udp.

Note that you can obtain the transport-level protocol type of a port with the get_port_transport_proto built-in function, and the numeric value of a port with the port_to_count built-in function.


A type representing an IP address.

IPv4 address constants are written in “dotted quad” format, A1.A2.A3.A4, where A1-A4 all lie between 0 and 255.

IPv6 address constants are written as colon-separated hexadecimal form as described by RFC 2373 (including the mixed notation with embedded IPv4 addresses as dotted-quads in the lower 32 bits), but additionally encased in square brackets. Some examples: [2001:db8::1], [::ffff:], or [aaaa:bbbb:cccc:dddd:eeee:ffff:1111:2222].

Note that IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses (i.e., addresses with the first 80 bits zero, the next 16 bits one, and the remaining 32 bits are the IPv4 address) are treated internally as IPv4 addresses (for example, [::ffff:] is equal to

Addresses can be compared for equality (==, !=), and also for ordering (<, <=, >, >=). The absolute value of an address gives the size in bits (32 for IPv4, and 128 for IPv6). Addresses can also be masked with / to produce a subnet:

local a: addr =;
local s: subnet =;

if ( a/16 == s )
    print "true";

And checked for inclusion within a subnet using in or !in:

local a: addr =;
local s: subnet =;

if ( a in s )
    print "true";

You can check if a given addr is IPv4 or IPv6 using the is_v4_addr and is_v6_addr built-in functions.

Note that hostname constants can also be used, but since a hostname can correspond to multiple IP addresses, the type of such a variable is set[addr]. For example:

local a = www.google.com;


A type representing a block of IP addresses in CIDR notation. A subnet constant is written as an addr followed by a slash (/) and then the network prefix size specified as a decimal number. For example, or [fe80::]/64.

Subnets can be compared for equality (==, !=). An addr can be checked for inclusion in a subnet using the in or !in operators.


A type allowing the specification of a set of related values that have no further structure. An example declaration:

type color: enum { Red, White, Blue, };

The last comma after Blue is optional. Both the type name color and the individual values (Red, etc.) have global scope.

Enumerations do not have associated values or ordering. The only operations allowed on enumerations are equality comparisons (==, !=) and assignment (=).


An associate array that maps from one set of values to another. The values being mapped are termed the index or indices and the result of the mapping is called the yield. Indexing into tables is very efficient, and internally it is just a single hash table lookup.

The table declaration syntax is:

table [ type^+ ] of type

where type^+ is one or more types, separated by commas. The index type cannot be any of the following types: pattern, table, set, vector, file, opaque, any.

Here is an example of declaring a table indexed by count values and yielding string values:

global a: table[count] of string;

The yield type can also be more complex:

global a: table[count] of table[addr, port] of string;

which declares a table indexed by count and yielding another table which is indexed by an addr and port to yield a string.

One way to initialize a table is by enclosing a set of initializers within braces, for example:

global t: table[count] of string = {
    [11] = "eleven",
    [5] = "five",

A table constructor can also be used to create a table:

global t2 = table(
    [, 22/tcp] = "ssh",
    [, 80/tcp] = "http"

Table constructors can also be explicitly named by a type, which is useful when a more complex index type could otherwise be ambiguous:

type MyRec: record {
    a: count &optional;
    b: count;

type MyTable: table[MyRec] of string;

global t3 = MyTable([[$b=5]] = "b5", [[$b=7]] = "b7");

Accessing table elements is provided by enclosing index values within square brackets ([]), for example:

print t[11];

And membership can be tested with in or !in:

if ( 13 in t )
if ( [, 22/tcp] in t2 )

Add or overwrite individual table elements by assignment:

t[13] = "thirteen";

Remove individual table elements with delete:

delete t[13];

Nothing happens if the element with index value 13 isn’t present in the table.

The number of elements in a table can be obtained by placing the table identifier between vertical pipe characters:


See the for statement for info on how to iterate over the elements in a table.

It’s common to extend the behavior of table lookup and membership lifetimes via attributes but note that it’s also a confusing pitfall that attributes bind to initial values instead of type or variable and do not currently propagate to any new value subsequently re-assigned to the table variable.


A set is like a table, but it is a collection of indices that do not map to any yield value. They are declared with the syntax:

set [ type^+ ]

where type^+ is one or more types separated by commas. The index type cannot be any of the following types: pattern, table, set, vector, file, opaque, any.

Sets can be initialized by listing elements enclosed by curly braces:

global s: set[port] = { 21/tcp, 23/tcp, 80/tcp, 443/tcp };
global s2: set[port, string] = { [21/tcp, "ftp"], [23/tcp, "telnet"] };

A set constructor (equivalent to above example) can also be used to create a set:

global s3 = set(21/tcp, 23/tcp, 80/tcp, 443/tcp);

Set constructors can also be explicitly named by a type, which is useful when a more complex index type could otherwise be ambiguous:

type MyRec: record {
    a: count &optional;
    b: count;

type MySet: set[MyRec];

global s4 = MySet([$b=1], [$b=2]);

Set membership is tested with in or !in:

if ( 21/tcp in s )

if ( [21/tcp, "ftp"] !in s2 )

Elements are added with add:

add s[22/tcp];

Nothing happens if the element with value 22/tcp was already present in the set.

And removed with delete:

delete s[21/tcp];

Nothing happens if the element with value 21/tcp isn’t present in the set.

The number of elements in a set can be obtained by placing the set identifier between vertical pipe characters:


You can compute the union, intersection, or difference of two sets using the |, &, and - operators.

You can compare sets for equality (they have exactly the same elements) using ==. The < operator returns T if the lefthand operand is a proper subset of the righthand operand. Similarly, <= returns T if the lefthand operator is a subset (not necessarily proper, i.e., it may be equal to the righthand operand). The operators !=, > and >= provide the expected complementary operations.

See the for statement for info on how to iterate over the elements in a set.


A vector is like a table, except its indices are non-negative integers, starting from zero. A vector is declared like:

global v: vector of string;

And can be initialized with the vector constructor:

local v = vector("one", "two", "three");

Vector constructors can also be explicitly named by a type, which is useful for when a more complex yield type could otherwise be ambiguous.

type MyRec: record {
    a: count &optional;
    b: count;

type MyVec: vector of MyRec;

global v2 = MyVec([$b=1], [$b=2], [$b=3]);

Access individual vector elements by enclosing index values within square brackets ([]), for example:

print v[2];

Access a slice of vector elements by enclosing a range of indices, delimited by a colon, within square brackets ([x:y]). For example, this will print a vector containing the first and second elements:

print v[0:2];

The slicing notation is the same as what is permitted by the string substring extraction operations.

An element can be added to a vector by assigning the value (a value that already exists at that index will be overwritten):

v[3] = "four";

A range of elements can be replaced by assigning to a vector slice:

# Note that the number of elements in the slice being replaced
# may differ from the number of elements being inserted.  This
# causes the vector to grow or shrink accordingly.
v[0:2] = vector("five", "six", "seven");

The size of a vector (this is one greater than the highest index value, and is normally equal to the number of elements in the vector) can be obtained by placing the vector identifier between vertical pipe characters:


A particularly common operation on a vector is to append an element to its end. You can do so using:

v += e;

where if e’s type is X, v’s type is vector of X. Note that this expression is equivalent to:

v[|v|] = e;

The in operator can be used to check if a value has been assigned at a specified index value in the vector. For example, if a vector has size 4, then the expression 3 in v would yield true and 4 in v would yield false.

Vectors of integral types (int or count) support the pre-increment (++) and pre-decrement operators (--), which will increment or decrement each element in the vector.

Vectors of arithmetic types (int, count, or double) can be operands of the arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /, %), but both operands must have the same number of elements (and the modulus operator % cannot be used if either operand is a vector of double). The resulting vector contains the result of the operation applied to each of the elements in the operand vectors.

Vectors of bool can be operands of the logical “and” (&&) and logical “or” (||) operators (both operands must have same number of elements). The resulting vector of bool is the logical “and” (or logical “or”) of each element of the operand vectors.

Vectors of type count can also be operands for the bitwise and/or/xor operators, &, | and ^.

See the for statement for info on how to iterate over the elements in a vector.


A record is a collection of values. Each value has a field name and a type. Values do not need to have the same type and the types have no restrictions. Field names must follow the same syntax as regular variable names (except that field names are allowed to be the same as local or global variables). An example record type definition:

type MyRecordType: record {
    c: count;
    s: string &optional;

Records can be initialized or assigned as a whole in three different ways. When assigning a whole record value, all fields that are not &optional or have a &default attribute must be specified. First, there’s a constructor syntax:

local r: MyRecordType = record($c = 7);

And the constructor can be explicitly named by type, too, which is arguably more readable:

local r = MyRecordType($c = 42);

And the third way is like this:

local r: MyRecordType = [$c = 13, $s = "thirteen"];

Access to a record field uses the dollar sign ($) operator, and record fields can be assigned with this:

local r: MyRecordType;
r$c = 13;

To test if a field that is &optional has been assigned a value, use the ?$ operator (it returns a bool value of T if the field has been assigned a value, or F if not):

if ( r ?$ s )


Function types in Zeek are declared using:

function( argument*  ): type

where argument* is a (possibly empty) comma-separated list of arguments, and type is an optional return type. For example:

global greeting: function(name: string): string;

Here greeting is an identifier with a certain function type. The function body is not defined yet and greeting could even have different function body values at different times. To define a function including a body value, the syntax is like:

function greeting(name: string): string
    return "Hello, " + name;

Note that in the definition above, it’s not necessary for us to have done the first (forward) declaration of greeting as a function type, but when it is, the return type and argument list (including the name of each argument) must match exactly.

Here is an example function that takes no parameters and does not return a value:

function my_func()
    print "my_func";

Function types don’t need to have a name and can be assigned anonymously:

greeting = function(name: string): string { return "Hi, " + name; };

And finally, the function can be called like:

print greeting("Dave");

Anonymously defined functions capture their closures. This means that they can use and modify variables from their enclosing scope at the time of their creation. Here is an example of a simple anonymous function that captures its closure in Zeek:

local make_adder = function(n: count): function(m: count): count
    return function (m: count): count
        return n + m;

print make_adder(3)(5); # prints 8

local three = make_adder(3);
print three(5); # prints 8

Here make_adder is generating a function that captures n in its closure.

Anonymous functions capture their closures by reference. This means that they can modify the variables in their closures. For example:

local n = 3;
local f = function() { n += 1; };
print n; # prints 4

When anonymous functions are serialized over Broker they keep their closures, but they will not continue to mutate the values from the sending script. At the time of serialization they create a copy of their closure. Anonymous function’s do not capture global variables in their closures though and will use the receivers global variables.

In order to serialize an anonymous function, that function must have been already declared on the receiver’s end, because Zeek does not serialize the function’s source code. See testing/btest/language/closure-sending.zeek for an example of how to serialize anonymous functions over Broker.

Function parameters may specify default values as long as they appear last in the parameter list:

global foo: function(s: string, t: string &default="abc", u: count &default=0);

If a function was previously declared with default parameters, the default expressions can be omitted when implementing the function body and they will still be used for function calls that lack those arguments.

function foo(s: string, t: string, u: count)
    print s, t, u;

And calls to the function may omit the defaults from the argument list:



Event handlers are nearly identical in both syntax and semantics to a function, with the two differences being that event handlers have no return type since they never return a value, and you cannot call an event handler.


event my_event(r: bool, s: string)
    print "my_event", r, s;

Instead of directly calling an event handler from a script, event handler bodies are executed when they are invoked by one of three different methods:

  • From the event engine

    When the event engine detects an event for which you have defined a corresponding event handler, it queues an event for that handler. The handler is invoked as soon as the event engine finishes processing the current packet and flushing the invocation of other event handlers that were queued first.

  • With the event statement from a script

    Immediately queuing invocation of an event handler occurs like:

    event password_exposed(user, password);

    This assumes that password_exposed was previously declared as an event handler type with compatible arguments.

  • Via the schedule expression in a script

    This delays the invocation of event handlers until some time in the future. For example:

    schedule 5 secs { password_exposed(user, password) };

Multiple event handler bodies can be defined for the same event handler identifier and the body of each will be executed in turn. Ordering of execution can be influenced with &priority.

Multiple alternate event prototype declarations are allowed, but the alternates must be some subset of the first, canonical prototype and arguments must match by name and type. This allows users to define handlers for any such prototype they may find convenient or for the core set of handlers to be extended, changed, or deprecated without breaking existing handlers a user may have written. Example:

# Event Prototype Declarations
global my_event: event(s: string, c: count);
global my_event: event(c: count);
global my_event: event();

# Event Handler Definitions
event my_event(s: string, c: count)
    print "my event", s, c;

event my_event(c: count)
    print "my event", c;

event my_event()
    print "my event";

By using alternate event prototypes, handlers are allowed to consume a subset of the full argument list as given by the first prototype declaration. It also even allows arguments to be ordered differently from the canonical prototype.

To use &default on event arguments, it must appear on the first, canonical prototype.


A hook is another flavor of function that shares characteristics of both a function and an event. They are like events in that many handler bodies can be defined for the same hook identifier and the order of execution can be enforced with &priority. They are more like functions in the way they are invoked/called, because, unlike events, their execution is immediate and they do not get scheduled through an event queue. Also, a unique feature of a hook is that a given hook handler body can short-circuit the execution of remaining hook handlers simply by exiting from the body as a result of a break statement (as opposed to a return or just reaching the end of the body).

A hook type is declared like:

hook( argument* )

where argument* is a (possibly empty) comma-separated list of arguments. For example:

global myhook: hook(s: string, vs: vector of string);

Here myhook is the hook type identifier and no hook handler bodies have been defined for it yet. To define some hook handler bodies the syntax looks like:

hook myhook(s: string, vs: vector of string) &priority=10
    print "priority 10 myhook handler", s, vs;
    s = "bye";
    vs += "modified";

hook myhook(s: string, vs: vector of string)
    print "break out of myhook handling", s, vs;

hook myhook(s: string, vs: vector of string) &priority=-5
    print "not going to happen", s, vs;

Note that the first (forward) declaration of myhook as a hook type isn’t strictly required. Argument types must match for all hook handlers and any forward declaration of a given hook.

To invoke immediate execution of all hook handler bodies, they are called similarly to a function, except preceded by the hook keyword:

hook myhook("hi", vector("foo"));


if ( hook myhook("hi", vector("foo")) )
    print "all handlers ran";

And the output would look like:

priority 10 myhook handler, hi, [foo]
break out of myhook handling, hi, [foo, modified]

Note how the re-assigning of a hook argument (s = "bye" in the example) will not be visible to remaining hook handlers, but it’s still possible to modify values of composite/aggregate types like vector, record, set, or table.

The return value of a hook call is an implicit bool value with T meaning that all handlers for the hook were executed and F meaning that only some of the handlers may have executed due to one handler body exiting as a result of a break statement.

Hooks are also allowed to have multiple/alternate prototype declarations, just like an event.


Zeek supports writing to files, but not reading from them (to read from files see the Input Framework). Files can be opened using either the open or open_for_append built-in functions, and closed using the close built-in function. For example, declare, open, and write to a file and finally close it like:

local f = open("myfile");
print f, "hello, world";

Writing to files like this for logging usually isn’t recommended, for better logging support see Logging Framework.


A data type whose actual representation/implementation is intentionally hidden, but whose values may be passed to certain built-in functions that can actually access the internal/hidden resources. Opaque types are differentiated from each other by qualifying them like opaque of md5 or opaque of sha1.

An example use of this type is the set of built-in functions which perform hashing:

local handle = md5_hash_init();
# Explicitly -> local handle : opaque of md5 = ...
md5_hash_update(handle, "test");
md5_hash_update(handle, "testing");
print md5_hash_finish(handle);

Here the opaque type is used to provide a handle to a particular resource which is calculating an MD5 hash incrementally over time, but the details of that resource aren’t relevant, it’s only necessary to have a handle as a way of identifying it and distinguishing it from other such resources.

The scripting layer implementations of these types are found primarily in base/bif/zeek.bif.zeek and a more granular look at them can be found in src/OpaqueVal.h/cc inside the Zeek repo. Opaque types are a good way to integrate functionality into Zeek without needing to add an entire new type to the scripting language.


An opaque type for creating and using paraglob data structures inside of Zeek. A paraglob is a data structure for fast string matching against a large set of glob style patterns. It can be loaded with a vector of patterns, and then queried with input strings. Note that these patterns are just strings, and not the pattern type built in to Zeek. For a query it returns all of the patterns that it contains matching that input string.

Paraglobs offer significant performance advantages over making a pass over a vector of patterns and checking each one. Note though that initializing a paraglob can take some time for very large pattern sets (1,000,000+ patterns) and care should be taken to only initialize one with a large pattern set when there is time for the paraglob to compile. Subsequent get operations run very quickly though, even for very large pattern sets.

local v = vector("*", "d?g", "*og", "d?", "d[!wl]g");
local p : opaque of paraglob = paraglob_init(v);
print paraglob_match(p, "dog");
# out: [*, *og, d?g, d[!wl]g]

For more documentation on paraglob see Subcomponents.

See also: md5_hash_init, sha1_hash_init, sha256_hash_init, hll_cardinality_add, bloomfilter_basic_init


Used to bypass strong typing. For example, a function can take an argument of type any when it may be of different types. The only operation allowed on a variable of type any is assignment.

Note that users aren’t expected to use this type. It’s provided mainly for use by some built-in functions and scripts included with Zeek. For example, passing a vector into a .bif function is best accomplished by taking any as an argument and casting it to a vector.


An internal Zeek type (i.e., void is not a reserved keyword in the Zeek scripting language) representing the absence of a return type for a function.